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Power train and E-Mobility

Power train and E-Mobility automotive applications



Introduction


Power train testing

Powertrain development is the most important requirement in successfully competing in today’s transportation market of cars, trucks, motorcycles and vessels. In the past powertrain development has been about increasing the power-to-weight ratio of the combustion engine, but today companies focus more on balancing the need for power and torque of the vehicle with legislative emission requirements. CO2 emissions and high fuel prices are also the reasons companies are competing to build new hybrid or electric vehicles.

Dewesoft X software includes ready to use modules - FFT analyser, order tracking, torsional and rotational vibrations, structural analysis, which make data analysis much faster and easier. It also provides possibility to measure all the parameters needed to analyse power, combustion, mechanical and other aspects of vehicle, which is key while developing and testing new hybrid and electrical technologies.

Key features

  • Quick and easy installation
  • Connect any sensor
  • Scalable from 8 to 1000 channels for multipurpose usage
  • Input protection and optical ±1000 V isolation
  • Simultaneous sampling
  • Anti aliasing filters
  • Programmable analogue outputs
  • TEDS functionality
  • Highest precision and easy to use (fully integrated in Dewesoft X software)
  • Measurement results available online including additional math channels
  • Many additional synchronised data sources like analogue, digital, CAN, GPS, IMU, FlexRay, XCP, CCP, RoadDyn 2000, video & many more
  • Automated workflow with DEWESoft sequencer
  • Possibility to capture different software modules (vehicle dynamics, combustion analysis, vibrations,...) in one synchronised data file
  • Export to many different file formats

Combustion analysis


Combustion Analysis


SIRIUSi Combustion Analyser systems from Dewesoft are used for engine research, development and optimisation. Also for component development and testing – such as ignition systems, exhaust systems and valve control gear.

The system consists of our top of the notch isolated SIRIUSi hardware and the well-known Dewesoft X software package for measurement and analysis. It supports angle and time-based measurement and uses highly sophisticated algorithms for online or offline mathematics and statistics – calculating heat release and other thermodynamic parameters.

The combustion analyser can either be used in-car (via the INCATM interface) or it can be fully integrated into a test-bed environment. Dewesoft X software will also allow you to acquire data from other sources like: Video, CAN, FlexRay, XCP/CCP Ethernet and many more.

Key features

  • 8 analogue inputs with sensor supply for any sensor and signal type: Charge, IEPE, Voltage, Strain, Torque, Temperature
  • Two options in speed and resolution: SIRIUS High Speed amplifiers (high-speed): 16 bit, 1 MS/s for high speed engines; SIRIUS Dual Core amplifiers: 24 bit, 200 kS/s for low RPM diesel engines
  • Direct connection of any RPM sensor: InCar (e.g. 60-2), Encoder, CDM+Trg
  • 1 isolated high speed CAN bus interface
  • Expandable to higher channel count
  • Interface to test-bed and INCATM
  • Multiple synchronised data interfaces CAN, FlexRay, Counter, GPS, Video, XCP/CCP and more
  • Simultaneous online analysis of torsional and rotational vibration, order tracking, electrical power, combustion noise, sound power and other mathematics


Application overview



Combustion analysis is a standard application for all research, development and calibration tasks of a combustion engine and development of exhaust gas after treatment. Combustion analysis is already required from the beginning of a prototype: e.g. for friction testing or in research for basic particle or emission analysis.

Exact identification of the top dead centre and a calibrated and compensated measurement chain are key to accurate measurement results. Combustion analysis is often used on a chassis dyno or even for the prototype within the drivability calibration procedure to engine and vehicle behaviour.

On the engine test bed combustion analysis is a standard tool to calculate and visualise relevant physical parameters from the combustion engine and to monitor and protect the unit under test. Different communication protocols to the control room via Ethernet or RS-232 are supported: e.g. Tornado, AVL PUMA Open. Analogue output channels are of course also supported.

For testing under real conditions, the Dewesoft CA analyser is perfectly suited for In-Car use. The combination with the CAN or XCP/CCP interface and any other sensor allows acquisition of all relevant data together with the combustion cycle. The combination with INCATM via CAN interface offers a complete solution for the ECU calibration.

DEWESoft® combustion analyser can be used on all types of combustion engines, such as car, truck, ship, motorcycle, power-saw, etc.

Engine Research and Development tasks

  • Misfire and knock detection
  • Friction analysis
  • Injection and ignition analysis
  • Valve control system timing
  • Combustion noise and vibrations
  • Mechanical stress diagnosis
  • Energy balance
  • Gas exchange analysis
  • Residual gas verification
  • Exhaust gas after treatment
  • Engine mapping


IN CAR USE

In car use

TEST BED APPLICATIONS

Test bed use


CA setup

EASY AND INTUITIVE CONFIGURATION

Simply define the engine type with the number of cylinders and its geometrical parameters. In the cylinder menu the analogue channel of each cylinder and the alignment of the cylinder angles can be defined. Additionally the injection channels and additionally channels for transforming any input channel to angle based can be selected in the Engine setup.

The next step is to select the angle sensor type and define the desired output resolution (down to 0.1°). The TDC (Top Dead Centre) can be detected automatically - without firing - using the maximum pressure level or optionally with a dedicated TDC sensor.



SELECTING THE DESIRED RESULTS

After these few steps of configuration, we only need to enable the desired output channels. Overall- or running-average, derivation, temperature, heat release, work, power are just some examples of the possibilities.

HEAT RELEASE

The online heat release calculation results in the energy for each cycle and various parameters. Another result is the exact angular progression (5, 10, 50 or 90%) of the energy. Also the SOC (start of combustion) and EOC (end of combustion) are calculated. All these values are based on the heat release algorithm. The combustion analyser shows all these values as well as relevant mean values IMEPg, PMEP and IMEPn – all these values can be visualised online in a graphical or in numerical view.

Knocking detection

KNOCKING DETECTION

Knocking in spark-ignition internal combustion engines occurs when combustion of the air/fuel mixture in the cylinder does not start off correctly. The robust knocking detection algorithm is based on comparing the signal before and after the TDC.

Knocking detection


COMBUSTION NOISE

The combustion noise option allows the measurement of noise level caused by an internal combustion engine during operation. The CA-noise must be calculated in the time domain. First the value is scaled from bar to Pascal. This is followed by the U-filter, which simulates the transfer function of the engine (1. and 2. filter in the overview).

Knocking detection

MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS

Knocking in spark-ignition internal combustion engines occurs when combustion of the air/fuel mixture in the cylinder does not start off correctly. The robust knocking detection algorithm is based on comparing the signal before and after the TDC.

Math and statistics


SUMMARY OF CALCULATED RESULTS

The overview below shows the power of the Dewesoft CA module. Most of them are available as cylinder and engine averaged results as well.

Group Name Description
Pressures MAX P Peak pressure value
MAP P POS Peak pressure position [degrees]
Pressure Current pressure cycle
Derivates MAX D Peak pressure derivate value
MAP D POS Peak pressure derivate position
Derivate Current pressure derivative
Volume Volume Cylinder volume curve
Zero correction P CORR Zero correction factor for pressures
MEP PI Work delivered to the piston over engine cycle
PIH Work performed by cylinder gasses on the piston during compression and expansion
PIL Work performed by the piston during exhaust and induction
Work, Power, Torque Work Work [Joule]
Power Power [kWh]
Torque Torque [Nm]
Heat release I5 Position of the heat release at 5% [deg]
I10 Position of the heat release at 10% [deg]
I50 Position of the heat release at 50% [deg]
I90 Position of the heat release at 90% [deg]
IXX Position of the heat release at user defined % [deg]
SOC Start of combustion [deg]
EOC End of combustion [deg]
TQ Heat release during combustion
TI Integrated heat release

Rotation and Vibration


Rotation and Vibration


Order tracking

Order tracking

Dewesoft X order tracking module is the main function for measurements with varying speeds. Any input can be used: microphone, accelerometer, even the output of the torsional vibration module.

Clearly separate engine related harmonics from other frequencies like structural resonances. The high precision digital counters of the Dewesoft instrument provide accurate and repeatable measurements. Result are represented in 3D, colour spectrogram but also in 2D view for selected order and phase extraction over RPM.

Orbit graph

Orbit graph

For displaying the axis movement Dewesoft X software include the orbit plot visual instrument.

Integration/double integration can easily be done directly in the channel configuration setup, for calculation of displacement based on accelerometer input. The output of the Dewesoft X order tracking module can be used for displaying single orders as well as cyclic averages.

Campbell plot

Cambpell plot

This instrument works based on classification of the measured values, with several options like rainbow, greyscale and adjustable classes. It can be applied on TimeFFT as well as OrderFFT.



Torsional vibration

Torsional vibration

With the high-precision digital counters of the DEWESoft® instruments, based on an 102 MHz time base, rotational and torsional vibration angles and velocities (with two encoders) can also be exactly determined at high RPM speeds. Constant angle offset, uncentered mounting and sensor errors can be compensated, gearbox ratios are supported and additional filters can be applied.

Multi domain

Multi domain

Analyse machines with repetitive processes and resample the data to any other channel base (e.g. angle-domain) to calculate e.g. concentricity errors of shafts (min, max, avg...) per cycle or over all cycles.

Cepstrum

Cepstrum

The cepstrum calculation (also used to determine characteristics in speech analysis) helps to identify vibration signatures, such as frequencies in gearbox and bearing analysis. DEWESoft® provides mirror spectrum, low and high frequency output.



Auto & cross correlation

Auto & cross correlation

For quantification of signals related to each other or to get the relevant information out of noisy data, the powerful Dewesoft X mathematics provides all the necessary tools. Similar to Matlab you can work and calculate with the array data to display the result already during measurement.

Bearing fault

Bearing fault

Easily identify the bearing fault frequencies with the help of automatic markers in the spectrum. Defects on the cage, rolling element, outer or inner race (FT, BSF, BPFO, BPFI) and also their harmonics can be seen. Just select manufacturer and bearing type via the bearing database. The bearing data base can also be edited by user.

Balancing

Cepstrum

To cancel out the vibration caused by the first order (unbalance), DEWESoft® offers the Dewesoft X balancing module. It is very easy to setup, just specify tacho sensor an accelerometer(s). It acts as a sequence: First record the actual status, then add a trial mass, last step is to add the calculated correction mass at the appropriate angle. Steps can be repeated if required. Depending on the rotating part, both single-plane and dual-plane balancing is supported. All results and the raw data are stored in the datafile.

E-mobility


DEWESoft® system can be easily extended in the field of e-mobility applications like electric and hybrid vehicle testing. The big advantage of DEWESoft® solution is that all this testing and analysis is performed with the same hardware and software and can cover nearly all applications.

For more details check the E-mobility application page.

Power analysis


DEWESoft® system can be easily extended in the field of power analysis applications. The big advantage of DEWESoft® solution is that all this testing and analysis is performed with the same hardware and software and can cover nearly all applications.

For more details check the Power analysis application page.

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